Indonesian Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Indonesia Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Indonesian Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation en-US Indonesian Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2252-8199 <div style="’text-align: justify;">© 2018 Indonesian Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Authors retain copyright and grant Indonesian Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation&nbsp;right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to freely share and remix the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in Indonesian Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.</div> Disability in post Covid-19 Era <p>Disability is an impaired condition in physical, mental, cognitive, or developmental aspect that interferes<br>with, or limits a person’s ability to engage in certain tasks or actions or participate in activities daily<br>living and interactions. Based on International Classification Functional Perception, an interaction<br>between individuals with a health condition, such as cerebral palsy, spina bifida, neuromuscular<br>disease etc with personal and environmental factors will result in a disability condition including,<br>limited social support and education, inaccessible transportati on as well.</p> Ellyana Sungkar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 10 02 10.36803/ijpmr.v10i02.294 The Validity and Reliability of Six Minute Walk Test in a 15 Meter Track <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong><br><strong>Introduction:</strong> Endurance is one of the key fitness measure that should be evaluated daily. Clinical<br>assessment of endurance in daily practice is usually hurdled by limitation of hospital spaces. Another<br>obstacle arise that shorter six-minute walk test (6MWT) track will lead to more turning motion, yielding<br>shorter straight walking distance with increased ener gy expenditure.<br>Methods:<strong> This cross sectional study compares 6MWT on a 15 meter corridor, to the gold standard</strong><br>Biodex® gait trainer for healthy adults aged 18-50 years. Subjects without any anatomical abnormalities<br>or systemic disorders were recruited, and instructed to turn in a three-step method at track ends to<br>maximize walking distance. Furthermore, validity and reliability assessments to obtain both Pearson<br>correlation and Cronbach Alpha values were performed respectively.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Among 123 subjects, 58 males aged ranging from 18 to 45 years, and females between 18 to<br>42 years were recruited. Anthropometrical values were similar between gender. Significant difference<br>in walking distance and walking speed was observed. Comparison of walking distance between the two<br>modalities were seen to be statistically similar (p=0.693). Pearson validity test was proven significant (p<br>&lt;0.001) with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.998, while reliability test obtained Cronbach’s Alpha value<br>of 0.999, hence showing that these are both valid and reliable.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Good validity and reliability of 6MWT in 15 meter track as compared to the gold standard<br>Biodex® gait trainer was demonstrated in this study. Moreover, shorter track is a potential modification<br>adhering to the limitation of operational space. The three-step turning method could significantly<br>improves total walk distance, and thus is suggested.<br><strong>Keywords:</strong> clinical assessment, endurance, six-minute walk test, walk dist ance, walking speed</p> Nury Nusdwinuringtyas Kevin Triangto Idrus Alwi Faisal Yunus Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 10 02 57 66 10.36803/ijpmr.v10i02.303 Effects of Additional Radial Shockwave Therapy to Median Nerve Gliding Exercises on Hand Grip Strength in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Patients <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong><br><strong>Introduction:</strong> Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is one of the most common entrapment neuropathies<br>found in the upper extremities. Patients with moderate and severe CTS usually experience disturbances<br>in motor strength. A non-invasive therapeutic method that has recently emerged in the treatment of CTS<br>is Radial Shock Wave Therapy (RSWT). RSWT is a therapy using shock waves and can be added to other<br>forms of exercise. The addition of RSWT in CTS is expected to increase the grip strength. Research that<br>directly assesses the effect of adding RSWT and median nerve gliding exercises on hand grip strength in<br>CTS patients has not been conducted.<br>Methods: <strong>This study was a pre-test/post-test control group design. There were 22 moderate grade CTS</strong><br>subjects divided into 2 groups, the control group was received median nerve gliding exercise (n=11) and<br>the treatment group was received additional RSWT on median nerve gliding exercise (n=11). Assessment<br>of grip strength by Jamar hand dynamometer was performed before and after 4 weeks of treatment. The<br>mean differences before and after treatment, as well as between groups was compared statistically using<br>an unpaired t-test.<br><strong>Results:</strong> There was no significant difference in the handgrip strength of the control group (p = 0.094),<br>and a significant difference in the treatment group (p = 0.009) before and after the intervention. However,<br>there were no significant differences in grip strength between the two groups (p=0.065).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There was no significant effect of adding RSWT on improving handgrip strength in CTS<br>patients who received a median nerve gliding exercise.<br><strong>Keywords:</strong> carpal tunnel syndrome, entrapment neuropathies, grip strength, nerve gliding exercise,<br>radial shockwave therapy</p> Cornelia Arina Pradipta Rudy Handoyo Hari Peni Julianti Hindun Zuhdiana Noviolita Dwi Kusumawati Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 10 02 67 74 10.36803/ijpmr.v10i02.304 Effect Combination of Inspiratory Muscle Training and Aerobic Exercise on Cardiopulmonary Endurance and Pulmonary Function in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong><br><strong>Introduction:</strong> Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease which decreased<br>cardiopulmonary endurance and pulmonary function are the clinical manifestations. Inspiratory Muscle<br>Training (IMT) has never been studied before, but aerobic exercise is commonly studied in SLE patients.<br>This study was conducted to know the combination ef fect of IMT and aerobic exercise in SLE patients.<br>Materials and methods: This study use quasi experimental design with pre and post-test approach.<br>Fourteen SLE patients that included in the Lupus Low Disease Activity State (LLDAS) were given<br>IMT and aerobic exercise for 8 weeks. Cardiopulmonary endurance is measured by 6-minute walk test<br>(6MWT) and Metabolic Equivalents (METs), pulmonary function by Maximal Inspiratory Pressure<br>(MIP), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1), and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC).<br><strong>Results:</strong> There is significant increase in pre and post intervention data, 397.45 ± 49.34 vs 427.50 ± 48.67<br>for 6MWT; 5.25 ± 1.14 vs 5.84 ± 1.08 for METs; 56.20 ± 14.24 vs 86.36 ± 20.73 for MIP; 68.00 ± 10.71<br>vs 72.90 ± 11.30 for FEV1; and 1.81 ± 1 1.14 vs 77.36 ± 11.80 for FVC.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The combination of IMT and aerobic exercise can increase cardiopulmonary endurance and<br>pulmonary function in SLE patients.<br><strong>Keywords:</strong> aerobic, inspiratory muscle training, lupus low disease activity state, maximal inspiratory<br>pressure, metabolic equivalents, six-minute walk test.</p> Irsan Agung Ramdhani Irma Ruslina Defi Dian Marta Sari Rachmat Gunadi Wachjudi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 10 02 75 84 10.36803/ijpmr.v10i02.306 Postural Control and Functional Performance Changes with Inspiratory Muscle Training in Chronic Kidney Disease Patient <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong><br><strong>Introduction:</strong> Approximately 60-75% of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have a uremic<br>syndrome that may cause damage to muscle cells, including the diaphragm as respiratory muscle, which<br>is known involved in maintaining postural stability and balance. This study aims to see the effects of<br>inspiratory muscle training on postural control and functional performance in CKD patients undergoing<br>hemodialysis twice a week.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> This single-blind randomized controlled trial enrolled 36 participants (45±9 years) allocated<br>randomly into the intervention and control group, receiving intensity of 50% and 10% Maximum<br>Inspiratory Pressure (MIP), respectively. Postural sway (95% ellipse area, anteroposterior (AP), and<br>mediolateral (ML) sway) measured using a force platform in static standing with feet apart (FP1) and<br>together (FP2), and functional performance by Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), assessed at<br>pre-and postintervention.<br><strong>Results:</strong> After 8-week, intervention group demonstrated greater improvements on MIP (233.45% vs<br>141.65%; p=0.0001). Postural sway FP1 and FP2 not significantly improved in intervention group (p &gt;<br>0.05). The control group showed a significant increase (p = 0.007) in the SPPB score.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The inspiratory muscle training has not significantly improved postural control nor<br>functional performance in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Further research is<br>needed.<br><strong>Keywords:</strong> chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis, inspiratory muscle training, physical performance,<br>postural control</p> Rian Dewi Auriani Vitriana Farida Arisanti Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 10 02 85 98 10.36803/ijpmr.v10i02.307 Disability Self-evaluation for Low Back Pain in COVID-19 Pandemic <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong><br><strong>Introduction:</strong> Low back pain (LBP) interferes with daily activities, which is why monitoring of<br>functional disability is important. Non-urgent hospital visits are reduced due to the COVID-19 pandemic.<br>Functional disability questionnaires serve as an alternative fo r patients to self-monitor their condition.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> This case-based study aimed to compare the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QBPDS) with<br>the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) on their responsiveness in assessing functional disability of patients<br>with LBP. Four databases (PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and Embase) were searched for literature. Two<br>eligible studies were included in this report. The studies were assessed using the Centre for Evidence-<br>Based Medicine critical appraisal tool for diagnostic studies. Data collected on the responsiveness of<br>ODI and QBPDS were measured using the area under the curve (AUC) of a receiver operating curve<br>(ROC), sensitivity, and specificity.<br><strong>Result: Both studies reported higher AUC values for ODI than QBPDS. One study reported higher</strong><br>sensitivity in ODI and identical specificity values for both ODI and QBPDS. QBPDS has comparable<br>responsiveness to ODI in assessing functional disability of pat ients with LBP.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Therefore, patients with low back pain can self-monitor their condition with QPBDS, as it<br>is comparable to ODI and suitable for self-monitor during the C OVID-19 pandemic<br><strong>Keywords:</strong> assessment, disability evaluation, low back pain, musculoskeletal pain, surveys and<br>questionnaires</p> Listya Tresnanti Mirtha Diandra Amandita Priambodo Dinda Nisrina Evita Stephanie Kharisma Zatalini Giyani Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 10 02 99 108 10.36803/ijpmr.v10i02.308 Respiratory Monitoring in Pediatric Neuromuscular Disease <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong><br>Neuromuscular disease in childhood result in dysfunction of chest wall and lung movement that interfere<br>ventilation function and gas exchange. Without vital respiratory pump, ventilation, gas exchange<br>function and cough ability would be compromised and could result in complications such as pneumonia,<br>atelectasis, and respiratory failure.<br>Comorbid factors in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, nutrition, and gastrointestinal could aggravate<br>respiratory morbidity and mortality if not adequately treated. This paper was written to review<br>anatomy and physiology of neurorespiratory system, pathophysiology of respiratory complication in<br>neuromuscular disease, clinical assessment and respiratory monitoring of childhood neuromuscular<br>disease from Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation point of view .<br><strong>Keywords:</strong> assessment, neuromuscular disease, pediatric, respiratory, ventilation</p> Andre Sugiyono Siti Chandra Widjanantie Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 10 02 109 118 10.36803/ijpmr.v10i02.309