Indonesian Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation http://indojournalpmr.org/IJPMR Indonesia Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Indonesian Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation en-US Indonesian Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2252-8199 <div style="’text-align: justify;">© 2018 Indonesian Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Authors retain copyright and grant Indonesian Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation&nbsp;right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to freely share and remix the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in Indonesian Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.</div> Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Physical and Mental http://indojournalpmr.org/IJPMR/article/view/323 <p><strong>Rehabilitation is one of the medical services for achieving good health, prevention of disease, and</strong><br><strong>treatment even though palliative care. This service helps people from infants until older to be able</strong><br><strong>in activities and participation independently involving not only patients but also family, caregiver,</strong><br><strong>rehabilitation team (physiotherapist, speech therapist, occupational therapist, orthopedist prosthetist,</strong><br><strong>social worker, and psychology), stakeholders (teacher, government people, etc.). Anybody may need</strong><br><strong>Rehabilitation for injury, disease, post-operation, or congenital anomaly, including mental and physical</strong><br><strong>problems.</strong></p> Ellyana Sungkar Copyright (c) 2022 http://indojournalpmr.org/IJPMR http://indojournalpmr.org/ 2022-06-01 2022-06-01 11 01 10.36803/ijpmr.v11i01.323 Leg Length Discrepancy http://indojournalpmr.org/IJPMR/article/view/322 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><br>Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is a condition of length differences in the lower extremity, caused by variety of factors, both congenital and acquired. Measurement using measuring tape, block test, and supine-tositting test based on bony landmarks is considered less accurate than imaging techniques. Measuring LLD can be difficult in certain cases such as obesity, leg deformities, and post arthroplasty. Individuals will develop biomechanical strategies to compensate inequality of leg when standing, walking, and<br>running on their feet, ankles, knees, hip, and or pelvis to minimize energy consumption. It can causes several complications, including osteoarthritis, functional scoliosis, intervertebral disc degeneration, stress fractures, cardiovascular and neuromuscular problems. Management varies from wearing a shoe<br>lift, relieve muscle and joint contracture, and surgical procedures. This paper was written to review measurement technique, biomechanical compensation strategies, complication, and management of LLD from Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation point of view .<br>Keyword: biomechanical compensation strategies, leg length discrepancy, lower extremity, management, measurement</p> Berianto Agustian Tertianto Prabowo Dian Marta Sari Copyright (c) 2022 http://indojournalpmr.org/IJPMR http://indojournalpmr.org/ 2022-06-01 2022-06-01 11 01 1 11 10.36803/ijpmr.v11i01.322 Case Report of Speech and Ambulation Ability After Five Years Therapy in a Six-Year-Old Boy with Habilitation Sixth Lumbar Spina Bifida with Meningocele Post Resection and Hydrocephalus Post VP Shunt http://indojournalpmr.org/IJPMR/article/view/324 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Spina bifida, a congenital spinal cord injury, is a complex disability that results from a failure of the caudal neural tube to fuse early in embryonic development. Spina bifida affects about 300.000 newborns each year worldwide. Hydrocephalus is common in children with spina bifida, developing in 80% to 90% of children with myelomeningocele. Anatomical abnormalities in which the myelomeningocele sac occurs is associated with neurological, motor and sensory deficits. They show<br>impaired speech and ambulation.<br><strong>Case presentation:</strong> We report a six-year-old boy was taken to the hospital by his parents because he could not stand and walk since he was born. At birth there was a lump on the lower back, and the patient also had hydrocephalus, then surgery had been performed. The patient was diagnosed with sixth lumbar spina bifida and hydrocephalus with meningocele. He had some delay in gross motor, fine motor and language development. The patient had history of seizures. He received trunk control exercise, pelvic stability<br>exercise, positioning and handling, coordination exercises and fine motor skills to increase independence in activities of daily life. The patient obtained 4 years exercises of speaking, comprehension, vocabulary and articulation. The child also received attention and concentration enhancement exercises.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> A patient with spina bifida requires a lifelong commitment by the patient, family, and the health care personnel involved in the treatment. The medical goal is to maintain stable neurological functioning throughout the patient’s lifetime. The wide range of extensive speech and ambulation impairments and long-term disabilities in patients with spina bifida present a considerable challenge to the management of these patients.<br><strong>Keywords:</strong> ambulation, hydrocephalus, meningocele, speech, spina bifida</p> Naela Munawaroh Lisa Nurhasanah Rahmi Isma AP Copyright (c) 2022 http://indojournalpmr.org/IJPMR http://indojournalpmr.org/ 2022-06-01 2022-06-01 11 01 13 23 10.36803/ijpmr.v11i01.324 Pre-Operative Depression and Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Open-Heart Surgery http://indojournalpmr.org/IJPMR/article/view/325 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Cardiac disease and mental health are two related disorders and often co-exist together. As one of the interventions to manage patients with cardiac diseases, the heart surgical procedure also correlated with depression and anxiety which will interfere with the prognosis. This study aimed to know the incidence of depression and anxiety in patients before undergoing open-heart surgery at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital (RSHS) Bandung.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study was a case series using primary data from patients and secondary data from medical records. Subjects were adult patients who will undergo open-heart surgery at RSHS Bandung. Data collection was started from November to December 2019. Variables assessed were depression and anxiety. Demographic profiles (age, gender, occupation, education, and marital status), as well as medical profiles (underlying disease, comorbidity, and type of surgical procedure), were also obtained.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Seven subjects will undergo open-heart surgery during the study period. One subject was excluded for returning an incomplete questionnaire. Subjects’ age was ranged from 28–58 years with a 1:1 male to female ratio. Subjects were dominated by those who will undergo mitral valve replacement<br>(4 of 6). No subject had depression and anxiety in this study.</p> <p><strong>Discussion:</strong> In this study, no incidence of depression and anxiety were found among subjects. The possible explanation for this result was the dominant underlying disease of valvular heart disease which was known to have a lower incidence of psychological disorders compared to coronary artery disease.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Depression and anxiety were not found among the subjects of th is study.<br><strong>Keywords:</strong> anxiety, coronary artery disease, depression, heart disease, open-hear t surgery</p> Arnengsih Nazir Lynna Lidyana Faresha Nadia Amanda M. Maulana Efry Copyright (c) 2022 http://indojournalpmr.org/IJPMR http://indojournalpmr.org/ 2022-06-01 2022-06-01 11 01 24 32 10.36803/ijpmr.v11i01.325 Comparison of Neutrophyl Lymphocyte Ratio and Nerve Conduction Study Between Male Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With or Without Peripheral Neuropathy Complication http://indojournalpmr.org/IJPMR/article/view/326 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) is one of the type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM) complication, which may lead to diabetic foot ulcer and lower extremity amputation. Inflammation plays a role in the pathogenesis of this type 2 DM complication. Recent studies showed neutrophyl-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a potential inflammation marker. Early screening for neuropathy is an important part of the medical rehabilitation management of this condition.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods:</strong> This study uses data analysis independent sample T-2 test with a significant (p&lt;0.05). This study is a analytic observation cross-sectional study with type 2 diabetic male subjects, screened with Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument then divided into 2 groups, with DPN group (11 subjects) and without DPN group (7 subjects). This was followed with complete blood count laboratory testing (neutrophyl and lymphocyte level) and NCS to measure distal latency, amplitudo, and NCV of the tibial, peroneal, and sural<br>nerve on both lower extremities.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> There were 18 subjects in this study. Independent T-2 test showed that there was no significant difference in neutrophils (p=0.679), lymphocytes (p=0.127), and NLR (p=0.190) in the DM group without or with neuropathy. NCS showed that there were significant differences on the amplitude of the three nerves peroneal (p=0.003), tibial (p=0.017), sural (p=0.033), also in NCV of peroneal (p=0.001) and tibial (p=0.008). There were no significant differences found on the three distal latency of peroneal (p=0.074), tibial (p=0.151), sural<br>(p=0.294), and NCV of sural (p=0.262).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study shows that there is no significant difference in NLR on both groups. There were significant differences in the amplitude of the three peroneal, tibial, and sural nerves and the conduction velocity of the peroneal and tibial nerves. However, there was no significant difference in the distal latency of the three<br>peroneal, tibial, sural, and the NCV of the sural nerves.<br><strong>Keywords:</strong> diabetes melitus, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, nerve conduction studies, neutrophyl-lymphocyte ratio, rehabilitation management.</p> Martha Kurnia Kusumawardani Surdiana I Putu Alit Pawana Sony Wibisono Copyright (c) 2022 http://indojournalpmr.org/IJPMR http://indojournalpmr.org/ 2022-06-01 2022-06-01 11 01 33 40 10.36803/ijpmr.v11i01.326 Gastrocnemius Muscle Histopathology In Spastic Rats http://indojournalpmr.org/IJPMR/article/view/327 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Spasticity caused by the injury of the central nervous system. Muscle with spasticity causes muscle fibers to change in size and distribution.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> To analyze the structure of the spasticity of the muscles, study use the excisional biopsy of the gastrocnemius muscle of spastic rats. Experimental study was conducted on 42 spastic rats in 6 groups with different doses of calcium. Staining of gastrocnemius muscle tissue fibers using hematoxylin-eosin.<br>Calcium staining using alizerin red.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Hematoxylin-eosin staining shown the muscle cell nucleus, cytoplasm or endoplasm appears roseate. Analysis of the spastic condition found that the distance between the muscle fibers dilated and the diameter smaller. Calcium deposits appear in spastic muscle tissue, by purplish-blue. The pearson correlation test showed a significant correlation between muscle fiber distance and spasticity after intervention (p&lt;0.05). The spearman correlation test showed a significant correlation between spasticity after intervention (p=0.008) and each changes in spasticity (p=0.015).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> HE staining used to determine the arrangement of muscle tissue in spastic gastrocnemius muscles and alizerin red determined calcium deposits in spasticity muscle tissue. There is a significant correlation between the distance between muscle fibers with spasticity and between changes in spasticity after the intervention.<br><strong>Keywords:</strong> alizerin red staining, gastrocnemius muscle, hematoxylin-eosin staining, histopathology, spastic rats</p> Marina Indriasari, MD,Phd Ferial Hadipoetro Bambang Pontjosoeryanto Copyright (c) 2022 http://indojournalpmr.org/IJPMR http://indojournalpmr.org/ 2022-06-01 2022-06-01 11 01 41 49 10.36803/ijpmr.v11i01.327 Administration of Oral Curcumin to Resistance Exercise after Immobilization Does Not Affect Skeletal Muscle Fiber Diameter in Rattus Norvegicus http://indojournalpmr.org/IJPMR/article/view/328 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong><br><strong>Introduction:</strong> The aim of this study was to explore the effect of adding oral curcumin to resistance exercise<br>after immobilization on the diameter of skeletal muscle fiber in Rattus Norvegicus.<br>Methods: This was a post-test only study design on animal model. Subjects of the study were male Rattus<br>norvegicus strain Wistar, age 10-12 weeks old, weigh between 150-300 g, were immobilized at soleus<br>muscle for 2 weeks, then randomly allocated to 3 groups: (i) control group, (ii) resistance exercise, (iii)<br>oral curcumin + resistance exercise. After 4 weeks of intervention, the diameter of the muscle fibers was<br>measured.<br><strong>Result:</strong> The results of this study showed a significant difference on the diameter of skeletal muscle fiber<br>between control group and resistance exercise, as well as control group and resistance exercise + oral<br>curcumin (p&lt;0.05). There was no significant difference between resistance exercise only and resistance<br>exercise + oral curcumin (p&gt;0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Administration of oral curcumin to resistance exercise after immobilization does not affect<br>skeletal muscle fiber diameter in Rattus Norvegicus.<br><strong>Keywords :</strong> curcumin, good health and well-being, immobilization, resist ance exercise, skeletal muscle.</p> I Putu Alit Pawana Martha Kurnia Kusumawardani Lydia Arfianti Copyright (c) 2022 http://indojournalpmr.org/IJPMR http://indojournalpmr.org/ 2022-06-01 2022-06-01 11 01 50 57 10.36803/ijpmr.v11i01.328