Cases, Prevalence and Treatment of Low Back Pain at Bandung Pain Rehab

Main Article Content

Theresia CT Novy
Grace Fonda
Andrew Suwadi


Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the pain complaints that affects almost every aspect of a person's life, urging many patients to come for treatment. The incidence of LBP in Indonesia is estimated between 7,6% and 37%, but it is still precisely unknown. A clinician must be able to make an accurate diagnosis to treat patients according to the etiology. In this study, we aim to determine the distribution of prevalence, demographic data, and the success of LBP treatment in order to help clinicians in management of LBP to reduce the global burden.
Methods: This was a descriptive analytic study with a cross-sectional design. This research was conducted at the Bandung Pain Rehab Center (BPRC) clinic from July 2019 to December 2021. We included all patients complaining of low back pain who came for treatment at the BPRC. The data of this study were taken from medical records. The success of therapy in the interventional pain management (IPM) and non-IPM groups was assessed by comparing the VAS values before and after treatment. Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 23 program with the Wilcoxon test.
Results: Of the 704 patients, the majority were female (59,2%), aged 51-60 years (23,6%), with obese body mass index (54,4%), and worked as housewives (35,5%). The most common etiology of LBP was piriformis syndrome (50,9%), followed by sacroiliac joint arthropathy (18,5%) and lumbar radiculopathy (14,8%). In the IPM and non-IPM groups, there was a significant decrease in pain intensity after therapy (p <0,001).
Conclusion: Our research shows that LBP is most common at the age of 51-60 years, female gender, with a body mass index classified as obese, and working as a housewife. Piriformis syndrome is the most common prevalent etiology of LBP. The use of therapy in both IPM and non-IPM showed significant improvements in alleviating pain experienced by the patients.
Keywords: Low back pain, case, prevalence, IPM, non-IPM, VAS score

Article Details

How to Cite
Novy, T. C., Grace Fonda, & Andrew Suwadi. (2023). Cases, Prevalence and Treatment of Low Back Pain at Bandung Pain Rehab. Indonesian Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 12(01), 52 - 60.
Original Article
Author Biographies

Theresia CT Novy, Bandung Pain Rehab Center

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Bandung Pain Rehab Center, Bandung, Indonesia

Grace Fonda, Bandung Pain Rehab Center

Medical Doctor, Bandung Pain Rehab Center, Bandung, Indonesia

Andrew Suwadi, Bandung Pain Rehab Center

Medical Doctor, Bandung Pain Rehab Center, Bandung, Indonesia


1. Raffaeli W, Arnaudo E. Pain as a disease: an overview. J Pain Res. 2017;10:2003-8.
2. Casiano VE, Sarwan G, Dydyk AM, Varacallo M. Back pain. StatPearls
Publishing. 2022.
3. Chaya A, Santoso WM, Husna M, Munir B, Kurniawan SN. Low back pain. J Pain
Headache Vertigo. 2021;2.
4. Wu A, March L, Zheng X, Huang J, Wang X, Zhao J, et al. Global low back pain prevalence and years lived with disability from 1990 to 2017: estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.
Ann Transl Med. 2020;8(6).
5. Kumbea NP, Sumampouw OJ, Asrifuddin A. Keluhan nyeri punggung bawah pada
nelayan. Indonesian Journal of Public Health and Community Medicine.
6. Cherif F, Zouari HG, Cherif W, Hadded M, Cheour M, Damak R. Depression
prevalence in neuropathic pain and its impact on the quality of life. Pain Res Manag. 2020.
7. Grabovac I, Dorner TE. Association between low back pain and various
everyday performances. Wiener klinische Wochenschrift. 2019;131(21):541-9.
8. Asemota AO, Haring SR, Schneider EB. Trends in hospitalizations and costs
associated with low back pain in the United States: a growing burden. J Am Coll Surg. 2017;225(4):S143.
9. Wong AY, Karppinen J, Samartzis D. Low back pain in older adults: risk factors,
management options and future directions. Scoliosis Spinal Disord. 2017;12(1):1-23.
10. Bento TPF, dos Santos Genebra CV, Maciel NM, Cornelio GP, Simeão SFAP,
de Vitta A. Low back pain and some associated factors: is there any difference
between genders?. Braz J Phys Ther. 2020;24(1):79-87.
11. Peng T, Pérez A, Gabriel KP. The association among overweight, obesity,
and low back pain in US adults: a crosssectional study of the 2015 national health interview survey. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2018;41(4):294-303.
12. Febriyanti AA, Andriana RM, Melaniani S. Correlation between overweight/
obesity and low back pain (LBP). Syntax Literate; Jurnal Ilmiah Indonesia. 2022; 7(1): 1522-9.
13. Chutkan NB, Lipson AC, Lisi AJ, Reinsel TE, Rich Jr RL, Christie SD, et al. Evidence-based clinical guidelines for
multidisciplinary spine care: diagnosis and treatment of low back pain. Illinois: North American Spine Society; 2020.
14. Chang A, Ly N, Varacallo M. Piriformis injection. StatPearls Publishing. 2022.
15. Kean Chen C, Nizar AJ. Prevalence of piriformis syndrome in chronic low back pain patients. A clinical diagnosis with modified FAIR test. Pain Pract.
16. Allegri M, Montella S, Salici F, Valente A, Marchesini M, Compagnone C, et al.
Mechanisms of low back pain: a guide for diagnosis and therapy. F1000Research.
2016; 5.
17. Davies A. Interventional pain management and chronic low back pain: effectiveness
and patient outcomes. Am J Biomed Sci Res. 2022;15(5).
18. Seyed MA, Mohamed SHP. Low Back Pain: A comprehensive review on the
diagnosis, treatment options, and the role of other contributing factors. Open Access
Maced J Med Sci. 2021; 9(F): 347-59.
19. Suzuki H, Kanchiku T, Imajo Y, Yoshida Y, Nishida N, Taguchi T. Diagnosis and
characters of non-specific low back pain in Japan: the Yamaguchi low back pain
study. PLoS One. 2016;11(8):e0160454.
20. Chiarotto A, Maxwell LJ, Ostelo RW, Boers M, Tugwell P, Terwee CB. Measurement
properties of visual analogue scale, numeric rating scale, and pain severity
subscale of the brief pain inventory in patients with low back pain: a systematic
review. J Pain. 2019;20(3):245-63.